Crime in India registered a 1.3 percent increase in 2018 compared to 2017 with over 50 lakh cognisable crimes being reported and registered. The National Crime Records Bureau’s annual crime in India report 2018 shows that over 31 lakh of these cases were registered under the Indian Penal Code, and nearly 20 lakh cases under Special and Local Laws. The per day numbers for the year 2018 show an alarming trend, the report says that an average of 80 murders, nearly 300 kidnappings and 91 rapes were reported every single day.Crimes against women saw a rise with over three lakh cases registered in 2018. That’s a 7 percent rise from 2017. Crimes against children also saw an increase, especially cases under the POCSO Act, including child rape.
National Crime Records Bureau:
NCRB was set-up in 1986 to function as a repository of information on crime and criminals so as to assist the investigators in linking crime to the perpetrators.
It was set up based on the recommendation of the Task force and National Police Commission by merging the Directorate of Coordination and Police Computer (DCPC), Statistical Branch of BPR&D, Inter State Criminals Data Branch of CBI and Central Finger Print Bureau of CBI.
Crimes In India 2018:
A total of 50,74,634 cognizable crimes comprising 31,32,954 Indian Penal Code (IPC) crimes and 19,41,680 Special & Local Laws (SLL) crimes were registered in 2018. Though it shows an increase of 1.3% in registration of cases over 2017 (50,07,044 cases), however, crime rate per lakh population has come down from 388.6 in 2017 to 383.5 in 2018.
During 2018, registration of cases under IPC have increased by 2.3% whereas SLL crimes have declined by 0.1% over 2017.
Percentage share of IPC was 61.7% while percentage share of SLL cases was 38.3% of total cognizable crimes during 2018.
Offences Affecting the Human Body:
A total of 10,40,046 cases of offences affecting the human body were registered which accounted for 2% of total IPC crimes during 2018, out of which hurt (5,30,076 cases) accounted for maximum cases i.e. 51.0% followed by cases of causing death by negligence (1,44,031 cases), Kidnapping and Abduction(1,05,734 cases) accounting for 13.8% and 10.2% respectively.
A total of 29,017 cases of murder were registered during 2018, showing an increase of 1.3% over 2017 (28,653 cases).
Disputes(9,623 cases) was the motive in highest number of murder cases during 2018 followed by ‘Personal vendetta or enmity’ (3,875 cases) and ‘Gain’ (2,995 cases).
Kidnapping & Abduction
A total of 1,05,734 cases of kidnapping & abduction were registered during 2018, showing an increase of 10.3% over 2017
A total of 1,05,536 (24,665 male and 80,871 female) victims were reported kidnapped or abducted, out of which 63,356 (15,250 male and 48,106 female) victims were children and 42,180 (9,415 male and 32,765 female) victims were adult during 2018.
During 2018, a total of 92,137 kidnapped or abducted persons (22,755 male and 69,382 female) were recovered out of which 91,709 persons were recovered alive and 428 persons were dead.
Offences Against Public Tranquillity:
A total of 76,851 cases of offences against public tranquillity were registered under various sections of IPC during 2018, out of which rioting (57,828 cases) accounted for 75.2% of total such cases.
Crime Against Women
Majority of cases under crimes against women out of total IPC crimes against women were registered under ‘Cruelty by Husband or His Relatives’ (31.9%) followed by ‘Assault on Women with Intent to Outrage her Modesty’ (27.6%), ‘Kidnapping & Abduction of Women’ (22.5%) and ‘Rape’ (10.3%).
The crime rate per lakh women population is 58.8 in 2018 in comparison with 57.9 in 2017.
Crime against Children
In percentage terms, major crime heads under ‘Crime Against Children’ during 2018 were Kidnapping & Abduction (44.2%) and cases under the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012 (34.7%) including child rape.
The crime rate per lakh children population is 31.8 in 2018 in comparison with 28.9 in 2017.
Juveniles in Conflict with Law
A total of 38,256 juveniles were apprehended in 31,591 cases, out of which 35,380 juveniles were apprehended under cases of IPC and 2,876 juveniles were apprehended under cases of SLL during 2018.
Majority of juveniles in conflict with law apprehended under IPC & SLL crimes were in the age group of 16 years to 18 years (75.5%) (28,867 out of 38,256) during 2018.
Crime/Atrocities against Scheduled Castes (SCs)
Crime head-wise cases revealed that simple hurt with 30.6% (13,078 cases) registered the highest number of cases of crimes/atrocities against Scheduled Castes (SCs) followed by SC/ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Act only with 9.8% (4,212 cases) and criminal intimidation with 7.3% (3,137 cases) during 2018.
Crime/Atrocities against Scheduled Tribes (STs)
Crime head-wise cases revealed that simple hurt (1,429 cases) registered the highest number of cases of crimes/atrocities against Scheduled Tribes (STs) accounting for 21.9% followed by rape with 15.4% (1,008 cases) and assault on women with intent to outrage her modesty with 13.1% (857 cases) during 2018.
Out of three specified category of economic offences (viz. criminal breach of trust, forgery, cheating & fraud and counterfeiting), forgery, cheating and fraud accounted for maximum such cases, with 1,34,546 cases, followed by criminal breach of trust (20,456 cases) and counterfeiting (1,266 cases) during 2018.
During 2018, 55.2% of cyber-crime cases registered were for the motive of fraud (15,051 out of 27,248 cases) followed by sexual exploitation with 7.5% (2,030 cases) and causing disrepute with 4.4% (1,212 cases).
Offences Against Property
During 2018, a total of 8,02,372 cases were registered under offences against property (25.6% of total IPC crimes), out of which, theft (6,25,441 cases) followed by burglaries (99,940 cases) accounting for 77.9% and 12.5% respectively.
During 2018, Properties worth Rs. 5,227.0 Crore were stolen and Properties worth Rs. 1849.9 Crore were recovered accounting for 35.4% of recovery of stolen properties.
During 2018, 2,44,271 cases of property crimes took place at residential premises. However, majority of robberies took place on roadways with 18,418 cases.
Offences Relating to Documents & Property Marks
During 2018, total of 1,35,812 cases were registered under offences against documents & property marks (comprising of counterfeiting and forgery, cheating & fraud), out of which, forgery, cheating & fraud (1,34,546 cases) accounted for 99.1% of total such cases.
A total of 3,47,524 persons (1,23,339 male, 2,23,621 female and 564 transgender) were reported missing in 2018. During the year 2018, a total of 3,32,754 persons (1,22,384 males, 2,09,852 females and 518 transgender) were recovered/traced.
A total of 67,134 children (19,784 male,47,191 female and 159 transgender) were reported missing in 2018. During the year 2018, a total of 71,176 children (22,239 male, 48,787 female and 150 transgender) were recovered/traced.
Seizures under Arms Act
A total of 66,305 cases were registered under the Arms Act, 1959 in which 74,877 firearms were seized, out of which, 3,742 arms were licensed/factory made and 71,135 arms were Unlicensed/ improvised/crude/country made. A total of 1,08,444 number of ammunitions were seized during 2018.
Fake Indian Currency Notes (FICN) Seizure
A total of 2,57,243 notes worth Rs.17,95,36,992 were seized under Fake Indian Currency Notes (FICN) during 2018.
Seizure of Narcotic Drugs
Ganja (3,91,275 kg), Acetic Anhydride (9,717 kg), Opium (4,307 kg) , Hashish (3,911 kg), Heroin (1,258 kg) and Ephedrine /Pseudoephedrine (337 kg) accounted for the major part of the drugs seized in 2018.
As per Narcotics Control Bureau, a total of 49,450 cases were registered for drugs seizure in which 60,156 persons (including foreigners) were arrested during 2018 in the country.
Arrests, Convictions & Acquittals
A total of 33,15,033 persons were arrested under 31,32,954 IPC crimes. A total of 35,75,644 persons were charge-sheeted, 8,64,686 persons were convicted,10,73,377 persons were acquitted and 89,735 persons were discharged.
A total of 21,93,157 persons were arrested under 19,41,680 SLL crimes. A total of 23,84,982 persons were charge-sheeted, 14,22,151 persons were convicted, 3,13,443 persons were acquitted and 27,642 persons were discharged.
Since the publication caters to the ‘Principle Offence Rule’ for classification of crime, the actual count of each crime head may be under reported. This is because among many offences registered in a single FIR case, only most heinous crime (maximum punishment) will be considered as counting unit. Hence, there is likelihood of some IPC/SLL cases getting under reported as they are hidden under major IPC crimes. For example, Murder with Rape is accounted as Murder; Dowry Prohibition Act when applied along with Dowry Death (304B of IPC) will be counted as Dowry Death only.
The Socio-economic causative factors or reasons of crimes are not being captured by the Bureau. Only police recorded crime cases are being captured for this publication.
Crime Rates of States/UTs have been arrived at using the Mid-Year Projected Population of respective States/UTs of 2018 based on 2011 census (Report of the Technical Group on Population Projections, Nov. 2019, National Commission on Population, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare). However, this is not available in respect of metropolitan cities. Crime Rates for Metropolitan cities have been calculated using Actual Population Census 2011. Hence, Crime Rates of States and Metropolitan cities are not comparable.
‘Crime Rate’ is not calculated for City-wise Crimes under ‘Children, SCs/STs & Senior Citizen’ due to non-availability of Population figures of the cities.
Clarifications on data for Crime in India are pending from West Bengal, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Sikkim and Kolkata City. Hence, data from aforesaid States/City may be treated as provisional.